If you’re developing web applications, you’ve no doubt noticed the common practice of including a development web server with your framework of choice. This is a convenience provided to allow developers to get going quickly with a framework, but the built-in tools are usually limited solutions. Unfortunately, you may run in to the limitations of the built-in web server, even when you’re just getting started.
One of the common shortcomings of these built-in web servers is a lack of SSL. Web servers like Nginx and Apache both provide easy to use SSL out of the box, but setting up these web servers to serve short-lived, ad hoc applications in varying frameworks is a bit too much overhead for my liking. Feeling that pain, I set out to find a simple way to proxy SSL requests to any web server.
The solution is an application called stunnel. Stunnel is self-described as an SSL wrapper. With stunnel, you can create SSL tunnels defined by a simple configuration file. It was purpose built for the application I was seeking, and much, much more. Fortunately, it’s available through Homebrew:
brew install stunnel
The default install of stunnel from Homebrew contains only an example configuration, so you’ll need to add a live one:
cat << 'EOF' > /usr/local/etc/stunnel/stunnel.conf pid = /tmp/stunnel.pid setuid = nobody setgid = nobody foreground = yes client = no [https] cert = /usr/local/etc/stunnel/stunnel.pem accept = 443 connect = 4567 EOF
This config listens on port 443 (the standard SSL port), then attempts a connection on port 4567 (the default Sinatra port). You can (and should) change the connect port to whatever your development server requires.
The certificate specified is a self-signed certificate that is generated by the Homebrew formula for stunnel. The author’s name and details are used for the cert, but since I only use this for development, I don’t let it bother me.
With the config in place, you simply start stunnel from any bash prompt. Sudo is required because stunnel will listen on 443 (a privileged port). Keep in mind that if you already have a server listening on 443, you’ll encounter an error, so shut down any daemons listening on 443 before you do this.
Stunnel will stay running in your terminal, outputting log information, much like your application’s development server. If you invoke stunnel and you end up back at a bash prompt, you’ve encountered an error. Once stunnel is running, switch over to your application root and start your development web server.
With both running, you should be able to visit https://localhost/ and see your application. Note that because this configuration uses a self-signed certificate, your web browser will give you a security warning. You can dismiss this warning.
At the risk of sounding dumb, I’ll point out that you should NOT use the typical port for your application server when attempting to use an HTTPS connection. I initially requested https://localhost:4567/, which of course generated an error:
[2014-04-21 13:49:29] ERROR bad Request-Line `\x16\x03\x01\x00?\x01\x00\x00?\x03\x03SUZ)Bo?8}?ϯ?L??Gb???]\x0F\x7F.b'. localhost - - [21/Apr/2014:13:49:29 EDT] "\x16\x03\x01\x00?\x01\x00\x00?\x03\x03SUZ)Bo?8}?ϯ?L??Gb???]\x0F\x7F.b" 400 351 [2014-04-21 13:49:29] ERROR bad URI `\x17??ne?M?????3?\x00\x00J\x00??$?#?'.
That’s what SSL encrypted traffic looks like to an out of the box WEBrick server, and obviously WEBrick doesn’t understand SSL… That’s what landed me here in the first place. If you see this, just drop the port specifier from your URL and try again. You should see console output in the terminal window where stunnel is running. If you don’t, check your stunnel configuration’s ‘listen’ directive to make sure it’s listening on the HTTPS default, 443.